Resvera-Vitis contains natural grape skin and grape seed extract with whole grape. Resveratrol, a phenolic component, found in the skin red grapes in the form of trans-resveratrol.

Resvera-vitis typically contains:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, A study published in the November 11 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry shows that resveratrol, a compound found in grapes and red wine, lowers the levels of the amyloid-beta peptides which cause the telltale senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease.

"Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol occurring in abundance in several plants, including grapes, berries and peanuts," explains study author Philippe Marambaud. "The polyphenol is found in high concentrations in red wines. The highest concentration of resveratrol has been reported in wines prepared from Pinot Noir grapes. Generally, white wines contain 1% to 5% of the resveratrol content present in most red wines."

One of the characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease is the deposition of amyloid-beta peptides in the brain. Philippe Marambaud and his colleagues at the Litwin-Zucker Research Center for the Study of Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders in Manhasset, New York, administered resveratrol to cells which produce human amyloid-beta and tested the compound's effectiveness by monitoring amyloid-beta levels inside and outside the cells. They found that levels of amyloid-beta in the treated cells were much lower than those in untreated cells.

The researchers believe the compound acts by stimulating the degradation of amyloid-beta peptides by the proteasome, a barrel-shaped multi-protein complex that can specifically digest proteins into short polypeptides and amino acids.

However, eating grapes may not be a cure for Alzheimer's disease. "It is difficult to know whether the anti-amyloidogenic effect of resveratrol observed in cell culture systems can support the beneficial effect of specific diets such as eating grapes," cautions Marambaud. "Resveratrol in grapes may never reach the concentrations required to obtain the effect observed in our studies. Grapes and wine however contain more than 600 different components, including well-characterized antioxidant molecules. Therefore, we cannot exclude the possibility that several compounds work in synergy with small amounts of resveratrol to slow down the progression of the neurodegenerative process in humans."

Following up on their studies, Marambaud and his colleagues are trying to figure out how resveratrol exerts its effects in order to develop similar compounds to use in fighting Alzheimer's disease. "Our long-term goal is now to elucidate the exact molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial properties of resveratrol as a necessary prerequisite to the identification of novel molecular targets and therapeutic approaches," says Marambaud. "The observation that resveratrol has a strong anti-amyloidogenic activity is a powerful starting point for screening analogues of resveratrol for more active and more stable compounds, a task in which our laboratory is actively involved. We have already obtained analogues of resveratrol that are 20 times more potent than the original natural compound. We are now aiming to find more stable analogues and to test them in vivo in mice."

Additional good news is that resveratrol may also be effective in fighting other human amyloid-related diseases such as Huntington's, Parkinson's and prion diseases. Studies by a group at the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale in Paris, France headed by Christian Néri have recently shown that resveratrol may protect neurons against amyloid-like polyglutamines, a hallmark of Huntington's disease.


Melissa Q.B. McElderry, M.S., R.D.
Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a compound found largely in the skins of red grapes, is a component of Ko-jo-kon, an oriental medicine used to treat diseases of the blood vessels, heart [1,2], and liver [2]. It came to scientific attention only four years ago, however, as a possible explanation for the "French Paradox" -- the low incidence of heart disease among the French people, who eat a relatively high-fat diet [3]. Today, it is touted by manufacturers and being examined by scientific researchers as an antioxidant [4], an anti-cancer agent, and a phytoestrogen [5]. It is also being advertised on the Internet as "The French Paradox in a bottle." [A] Arkopharma, of Wallingford, Connecticut, even markets a red-wine extract antioxidant product called "French Parad'ox." This article reviews the recent research on resveratrol's physiologic activity.

Sources
While present in other plants, such as eucalyptus, spruce, and lily, and in other foods such as mulberries and peanuts, resveratrol's most abundant natural sources are Vitis vinifera, labrusca, and muscadine grapes, which are used to make wines. It occurs in the vines, roots, seeds, and stalks, but its highest concentration is in the skin [1], which contains 50-100 micrograms (µg) per gram [4]. Resveratrol is a phytoalexin, a class of antibiotic compounds produced as a part of a plant's defense system against disease [1]. For example, in response to an invading fungus, resveratrol is synthesized from p-coumaroyl CoA and malonyl CoA [2]. Since fungal infections are more common in cooler climates, grapes grown in cooler climates have a higher concentration [3]. Resvera-vitis is a concentrated extract of the European Pinot Noir grapes.

The resveratrol content of wine is related to the length of time the grape skins are present during the fermentation process. Thus the concentration is significantly higher in red wine than in white wine, because the skins are removed earlier during white-wine production, lessening the amount that is extracted [3]. Grape juice, which is not a fermented beverage, is not a significant source of resveratrol. A fluid ounce of red wine averages 160 µg of resveratrol, compared to peanuts, which average 73 µg per ounce [6]. Since wine is the most notable dietary source, it is the object of much speculation and research.

Cardiovascular Effects
Many studies suggest that consuming alcohol (especially red wine) may reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Several studies have demonstrated that resveratrol is an effective antioxidant [7-10]. It inhibits lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) [7,8], prevents the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL [7], and protects cells against lipid peroxidation [7]. It is thought that because it contains highly hydrophilic and lipophilic properties, it can provide more effective protection than other well-known antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E [7]. On the other hand, it is less effective than the antioxidants quercetin and epicatechin found in red wine [2]. Reduced platelet aggregation has also been demonstrated in studies on resveratrol, further contributing to its prevention of atherosclerosis [2,9]. To date, most of the research on resveratrol's antioxidant and anti-platelet properties has been done in vitro (in an artificial environment using test-tube or tissue-culture preparations). Further studies in animals and humans are necessary to determine whether resveratrol supplementation makes sense.

Cancer-Related Effects
Resveratrol is being studied to see how it affects the initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. With regard to tumor initiation, it has been shown to act as an antioxidant by inhibiting free radical formation, and as an anti-mutagen in rat models [4]. Resveratrol appears to decrease tumor promotion activity by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) [4,11,12], an enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to pro-inflammatory substances that stimulate tumor-cell growth [3]. Studies related to progression have found that resveratrol induced human promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation [4] and inhibited ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme needed for DNA synthesis in proliferating cells [12]. One appealing characteristic of resveratrol's anti-cancer potential is its minimal toxicity to blood-forming cells [11]. More studies using both cellular and animal models are needed before any such data would be applicable to human use.

The similarity in structure between resveratrol and diethylstilbestrol (a synthetic estrogen) has prompted investigations into resveratrol's potential as a phytoestrogen (a plant compound that produces estrogen-like effects). However, these properties also stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells [5]. This finding seems contrary to its other anticancer activities, and is a cause for concern.

References
Celotti E and others. Resveratrol content of some wines obtained from dried Valpolicella grapes: Recioto and Amarone. Journal of Chromatography A 730(1-2): 47-52, 1996.
Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. Resveratrol: A molecule whose time has come? And gone? Clinical Biochemistry 30:91-113, 1997.
Kopp P. Resveratrol, a phytoestrogen found in red wine. A possible explanation for the conundrum of the 'French paradox'? European Journal of Endocrinology 138:619-620, 1998.
Jang M and others. Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes. Science 275:218-220, 1997.
Gehm H and others. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in grapes and wine, is an agonist for the estrogen receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 94:557-562, 1997.
Sanders TH, McMichael RW. Occurrence of resveratrol in edible peanuts. Presentation, American Oil Chemists Society, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1998. Discussed in Peanuts contain significant amount of plant compound that may prevent risk of heart disease and cancer, a news release from The Peanut Institute, Sept 8, 1998.
Chanvitayapongs S, Draczynska-Lusiak B, Sun AY. Amelioration of oxidative stress by antioxidants and resveratrol in PC12 cells. Neuroreport 8:1499-1502, 1997.
Belguendouz L, Fremont L, Gozzelino MT. Interaction of transresveratrol with plasma lipoproteins. Biochemical Pharmacology 55:811-816, 1998.

Rotondo S and others. Effect of trans-resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function. British Journal of Pharmacology 123:1691-1699, 1998.
Frankel EN, Waterhouse AL, Kinsella JE. Inhibition of human LDL oxidation by resveratrol. Lancet 341:1103-1104, 1993.
Clement MV and others. Chemopreventive agent resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes, triggers CD95 signaling-dependent apoptosis in human tumor cells. Blood 92:996-1002, 1998.
Fontecave M and others. Resveratrol, a remarkable inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase. FEBS Letters 421:277-279, 1998.
Bertelli AA and others. Evaluation of kinetic parameters of natural phytoalexin in resveratrol orally administered in wine to rats. Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research 24:51-55, 1998.
Bertelli A and others. Plasma and tissue resveratrol concentrations and pharmacological activity. Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research 24:133-138, 1998.

Each capsule contains 585 mg
100 ppm Trans Resveratrol
92% polyphenols - 15% procyanidins
One of the highest ORAC Factors - 17.000 µ moles
(ORAC = Oxygen Radical Absorption (or Absorbance) Capacity is an assay that measures the antioxidant activity of a substance. That is, it quantifies the degree and length of time it takes to inhibit the action of an oxidizing agent - specifically oxygen radicals - known to cause damage to the delicate machinery of living cells. Substances assayed can include natural products such as fruits and vegetables, beverages, supplements, plasma, serum, and urine. Antioxidants 'sponge up' or remove free radicals.)
The French Paradox
Where does Resveratrol come from?
Areas where Resveratrol has shown to be effective.
Alzheimer's disease Effects
Cancer-Related Effects
Cardiovascular Effects
References

Resvera-Vitis is only available from Seariver Corp - Miami. e-mail contact - Visit the Sea River Corp site

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